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Hymenocephalus italicus  Giglioli, 1884

Glasshead grenadier
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Hymenocephalus italicus  AquaMaps  Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Hymenocephalus italicus (Glasshead grenadier)
Hymenocephalus italicus
Picture by De Sanctis, A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes (Cods) > Macrouridae (Grenadiers or rattails) > Macrourinae
Etymology: Hymenocephalus: Named for its transparent membrane-like head covering (‘‘hymen head’’) and fragile nature of head bones (Ref. 100825).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; benthopelagic; non-migratory; depth range 100 - 1400 m (Ref. 3587).   Subtropical; 43°N - 20°S, 97°W - 35°E (Ref. 1371)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Widespread: common in the tropical western Atlantic; Eastern Atlantic: from Portugal to Angola), the Mediterranean. Western Indian Ocean: off southern Somalia to Zanzibar, off Mozambique to Durban, along the Mascarene Ridge and off Maldives (Ref. 98298); including Gulf of Aden and Zanzibar (Ref. 26165).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 2.7, range 3 - 4 cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 58045)

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Most common at depths less than 500 m (Ref. 1371). Feeds predominantly on pelagic copepods, to a lesser extent on euphausiids and gammarian amphipods, and to a minor extent on shrimps, ostracods, cumaceans, other small crustaceans, and small fish (Ref. 1371). Due to its small size, it is not of significant interest to fisheries (Ref. 1371).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Iwamoto, Tomio | Collaborators

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.1 - 15.9, mean 12.6 (based on 338 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00229 (0.00110 - 0.00476), b=3.09 (2.91 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.18; tmax=9).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .