Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; anadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 50610). Temperate; 50°N - 42°N
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559); max. published weight: 24.0 kg (Ref. 56527); max. reported age: 16 years
Northwest Pacific: Sea of Japan, from southern Kuril Islands and Primorskii Krai, Russia to Hokkaido.
Usually inhabits lower and middle reaches of rivers and lakes. A sea-run form is found in the eastern coast of Hokkaido. Young feed mainly on aquatic insects while fishes more than 30 cm are completely piscivorous. Spawns in spring in river branches, where the female lays 2,000-10,000 eggs on sandy or gravelly bottom.
Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. (Ref. 4537)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: experimental
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01150 (0.00678 - 0.01950), b=3.01 (2.86 - 3.16), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.62 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (79 of 100) .