Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beryciformes
(Sawbellies) > Trachichthyidae
Etymology: Hoplostethus: Greek, hoplon = weapon + Greek, stetho, stethion = brest; literal = to prick a little breast (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 100 - 1175 m (Ref. 9942). Subtropical
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 16.5, range 13 - ? cm
Max length : 42.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4784); max. reported age: 11 years (Ref. 26316)
Cosmopolitan. Eastern Atlantic: Ireland to Senegal, Canary Islands, and the Gulf of Guinea, including the Mediterranean; also Namibia and South Africa (Ref. 4181). Reported from Iceland (Ref. 12462). Western Indian Ocean: Red Sea (Ref. 9942) and South Africa (Ref. 4181). Western Atlantic: Georges Bank to northern Gulf of Mexico, Great Antilles, and Venezuela to southern Brazil (Moore, pers. comm.).
This species is reported to be pelagic in Maul, 1990 (Ref. 3583); however, Schneider, 1990 (Ref. 2683) indicates the species is demersal. Found over muddy bottom (Ref. 26999).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Maul, G.E., 1990. Trachichthyidae. p. 620-622. In J.C. Quéro, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3583)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00781 - 0.01471), b=3.05 (2.96 - 3.14), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.53 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.11; tmax=11).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100) .