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Hoplias microlepis  (Günther, 1864)

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Hoplias microlepis
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Characiformes (Characins) > Erythrinidae (Trahiras)
Etymology: Hoplias: Greek, hoplon = weapon (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Freshwater; benthopelagic.   Tropical; 26°C - 28°C (Ref. 36880)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Central and South America: Pacific drainages of Panama; records in the Atlantic coast of Panama are restricted to the Canal Zone, suggesting dispersal through the Panama Canal; Puntarenas in southwestern Costa Rica; río Guayas basin in Ecuador and río Tumbes in northwestern Peru (Ref. 96873); and Colombia (Ref. 37025).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 36.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37025)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-15; Vertebrae: 42 - 45. Hoplias microlepis is distinguished from all congeners, except species of H. malabaricus group, by the the shape of the dentaries abruptly converging towards the mandibular symphysis (vs. dentaries parallel and only gently converging towards the mandibular symphysis) and by having tooth plates on tongue (vs. absence of tooth plates on tongue). H. microlepis can be separated from H. brasiliensis and H. curupira by having 43-47 scales on lateral line (vs. 38-43 and 34-39, respectively), and from H. australis and H. lacerdae by having 4 pores of the laterosensory system along the ventral surface of dentary (vs. always 5 and 6-8 respectively). It differs from H. aimara by having accessory ectopterygoid and by lacking vertically elongate dark spot on the opercular membrane (vs. absence of accessory ectopterygoid and presence of dark spot). It can be diagnosed from the other members of the H. malabaricus species group by having more circumpeduncular scales (22-24, usually 24 vs. 18-20, usually 20) (Ref. 96873).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits rivers (Ref. 96873). Collected in creeks and swamps in areas of little or no current on sand and mud bottoms. Lives between 20 and 40 m elevation. Piscivorous (Ref. 36880). Reported to reach 50.0 cm TL (Ref. 9585).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Oyakawa, Osvaldo T. | Collaborators

Mattox, G.M.T., A.G. Bifi and O.T. Oyakawa, 2014. Taxonomic study of Hoplias microlepis (Günther, 1864), a trans-Andean species of trahiras (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Erythrinidae). Neotrop. Ichthyol. 12(2):343-352. (Ref. 96873)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | OsteoBase(skull, spine) | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00603 (0.00272 - 0.01333), b=3.12 (2.93 - 3.31), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  .
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.