Hoplias malabaricus  (Bloch, 1794)

Trahira
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Hoplias malabaricus
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Characiformes (Characins) > Erythrinidae (Trahiras)
Etymology: Hoplias: Greek, hoplon = weapon (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 4 - 25; potamodromous (Ref. 51243).   Tropical; 20°C - 26°C (Ref. 2060); 11°N - 35°S, 85°W - 35°W

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 17 - ? cm
Max length : 55.2 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 79585); max. published weight: 2.0 kg (Ref. 79585)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions | Faunafri

Central and South America: Costa Rica to Argentina in most rivers basins.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in diverse habitats from free flowing clear water streams, well up into the valleys, to slow turbid waters, water courses, irrigation and drainage ditches, and ponds on the plains (Ref. 11225). Rests in vegetation during the day and is active at night (Ref. 6858). Adults feed on fish; juveniles feed on crustacean and insect larvae (Ref. 26543), shrimps and other small invertebrates (Ref. 12225). Spawn in pits located in shallow water at a temperature of about 26°C (Ref. 205). Males guard the nests even after the eggs have hatched (Ref. 205). Reaches more than 3 kg (Mark Fitzgerald, pers. comm., 2001). Live fish are difficult to handle and potentially dangerous because of their sharp teeth, strong jaws, and slippery bodies.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Oyakawa, Osvaldo T. | Collaborators

Planquette, P., P. Keith and P.-Y. Le Bail, 1996. Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de Guyane. Tome 1. Collection Patrimoines Naturels 22: 429p. Paris: Publications scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

Threat to humans

Other




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00550 (0.00229 - 0.01320), b=3.12 (2.91 - 3.33), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.8 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.08).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.