Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Exocoetidae
Etymology: Hirundichthys: latin, hirundo = swift; 1300 + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 20 m. Tropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Worldwide in tropical waters. Eastern Atlantic: probably throughout the tropical region, apparently uncommon in the Gulf of Guinea and absent in Benguela current (Ref. 4498). Western Atlantic: northern South America (Ref. 5217); uncommon in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 3720). Indian Ocean: South Africa (Ref. 2797), Mauritius, Rodriguez and Maldives (Ref. 33390) and the Chagos Archipelago (Ref. 27307). Western Pacific: New Zealand (Ref. 5755); probably absent in the inland seas of southeast Asia (Ref. 9839). Central Pacific: Hawaii (Ref. 583). Eastern Pacific: El Salvador to Ecuador (Ref. 9300). Mediterranean (Ref. 50345).
Found in oceanic surface waters (Ref. 9839). Spawns throughout the year in warm waters (Ref. 6523).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Parin, N.V., 1996. On the species composition of flying fishes (Exocoetidae) in the West-Central part of tropical Pacific. J. Ichthyol. 36(5):357-364. (Ref. 27313)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.08 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .