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Himantura undulata  (Bleeker, 1852)

Leopard whipray
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Himantura undulata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Himantura undulata (Leopard whipray)
Himantura undulata
Picture by Devarapalli, P.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays)
Etymology: Himantura: Greek, iman, imantos = thong, strap + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal.   Tropical, preferred ?; 30°N - 24°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Bay of Bengal to New Guinea, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia. Not occurring in the western Indian Ocean.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 85 - 90 cm
Max length : 410 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9840)

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Demersal on soft substrate inshore (Ref.58048). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Size at birth about 20 cm WD and 92 cm TL (Ref. 90102). Caught occasionally in the demersal tangle net, bottom trawl and longline fisheries. Utilized for its meat, skin (high value) and cartilage (Ref.58048).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

  Vulnerable (VU) (A2cd+3cd+4cd)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishes of Iran | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases |