Himantura schmardae  (Werner, 1904)

Chupare stingray
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Himantura schmardae
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays)
Etymology: Himantura: Greek, iman, imantos = thong, strap + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal.   Tropical

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 100.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Disc ovate, broadly rounded. Tails with blunt tubercles. Upper surface dark brown, sooty olive. Edges of disc darker. Lower surface of disc and pelvic fins yellowish or cream white. Teeth little darker than lower surface (Ref. 6902).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Central Atlantic: Gulf of Campeche and the West Indies to Suriname (Ref. 3168); including Brazil (Ref. 53430). Validity of this species questioned in Compagno's 1999 checklist (Ref. 35766).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found on sandy bottoms, occasionally near coral reefs (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Marketed salted; also used in the preparation of gelatin and oil.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

Stehmann, M., J.D. McEachran and R. Vergara R., 1978. Dasyatidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Vol. 1. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3168)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 3168)




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

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Ciguatera
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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00492 - 0.02938), b=3.03 (2.81 - 3.25), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.