Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Herklotsichthys: After Janus Adrian Herklots, Australian ichthyologist, 1820-1872.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 13 m (Ref. 58302). Tropical; 39°N - 33°S, 29°E - 178°W (Ref. 188)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 10.1, range 7 - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 12 - 23. Elongate wing-like scales underneath paired pre-dorsal scales separate it from all other species except H. koningsbergeri and Herklotsichthys Species A, which have prominent black spots on the flank, and Herklotsichthys Species B, which has dusky tips to dorsal and caudal fins and more lower gill rakers. Flank silvery with an electric blue line preceded by two orange spots located on each operculum.
Indo-Pacific: widespread, East Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius eastward to Japan, eastern Australia, Samoa. Introduced into Hawaii - apparently by accident - where it is now abundant. (most previous data published under the name Herklotsichthys punctatus). At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Adults form schools near mangroves, shallow coastal bays and lagoons during the day and moves further offshore into deeper water by night (Ref. 188, 48635). Known in mills around in large schools under wharves or along sandy beaches in protected bays (Ref. 26367). Are pelagic (Ref. 58302). Feeding occurs mainly at night on zooplankton, chiefly copepods by juveniles, and as adults, on larger prey organisms (chaetognaths, polychaetes, shrimps and small fishes). Breeding occurs on the first year and probably survive only a few months after maturity. Marketed fresh and dried salted (Ref. 188). Usually parceled in leaves and baked in a motu oven. Do not recover quite as quickly as other species of baitfish after heavy fishing (Ref. 26367).
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Breeds during its first year and probably survives only a few months after maturity (Ref. 188).
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Potential pest (Ref. 6362)
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00614 - 0.01628), b=3.08 (2.94 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=2.6).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .