Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Characiformes
(Characins) > Hepsetidae
Etymology: Hepsetus: Greek, epsetas, -e, -on = boiled, but there is the following sentence: "oí epsetoi" = certain fishes, and also could be related to "psetta" = grouper (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; demersal; pH range: 6.0 - 7.5; dH range: ? - 18; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 26°C - 28°C (Ref. 2060)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 14.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.8 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 88135)
soft rays: 12. Diagnosis: distinguished from all other Hepsetus species by the following unique combination of characters: number of lateral line scales low, 43–51; nostril-lower jaw distance short, 36.6–42.1 (mean 39.6)%HL; number of gill rakers high, 17–23; number of scales between dorsal fin and lateral line 7.5-9.5; number of scales between adipose fin and lateral line 4.5-6.5; head width broad, 32.8–42.3 (mean 37.0)%HL; internasal distance high, 21.9–28.3 (mean 24.7)%HL (Ref. 88135).
Africa: from the Sassandra River (Ivory Coast) in the west to the Shari River (Central African Republic) in the east, and southwards up to the Kribi/Kienke River (Cameroon)(Ref. 88135). Reports from outside this area refer to other Hepsetus species (Ref. 88135, 93279, 93907).
Seems to prefer upper river courses or small rivers where Hydrocynus are absent or scarce (Ref. 2914, 81278, 81637). Adults occur in most coastal rivers, lakes and swamps (Ref. 3569).
Builds a free-floating bubblenest.
Paugy, D., 2007. Hepsetidae. p. 343-346. In M.L.J. Stiassny, G.G. Teugels and C.D. Hopkins (eds.) The fresh and brackish water fishes of Lower Guinea, West-Central Africa. Volume I. Collection Faune et Flore tropicales 42. Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris, France, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, and Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium. 800 pp. (Ref. 81637)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00161 - 0.00896), b=3.15 (2.94 - 3.36), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.8 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.27-0.59; tmax=5; Fec < 10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .