Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens)
Etymology: Harengula: Old English haring, hering = mackerel, the fish Clupea harengus (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 188). Subtropical; 34°N - 15°N, 90°W - 53°W (Ref. 188)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 11.0, range 9 - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 12 - 23. Tooth plate on tongue and tooth plate behind it (basihyal and basibranchial tooth plates) very narrow, their width about 10 times in combined length, the basihyal tooth plate not bulging in front. Scales thin, loosely attached, easily shed. Tips of anterior dorsal fin rays dark. Reddish or orange spot behind upper end of gill (Ref. 26938). Body slender, with evenly curved upper and lower profiles (Ref. 7251).
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Florida (USA), Bahamas, Caribbean, Guianas (but no records to the south of this; no Brazilian specimens in the extensive collections of the Museu de Zoologia, Sao Paulo, Brazil).
Occur in coastal waters, usually along the shoreline (Ref. 9710) and over clear coral reefs (Ref. 5217). May form large schools in beaches, mainly over Thalassia beds (Ref. 5217). Often in polluted areas (Ref. 9710).
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Fisheries: commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00910 (-0.09388 - 0.11208), b=3.08255 (3.01346 - 3.15165), based on LWR estimates for species & family-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.41-1.03; tm=1.5; Fec=41,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .