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Gymnura zonura  (Bleeker, 1852)

Zonetail butterfly ray
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | Year 2050 |
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Gymnura zonura   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Gymnura zonura (Zonetail butterfly ray)
Gymnura zonura
Picture by The Fish Database of Taiwan

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Gymnuridae (Butterfly rays)
Etymology: Gymnura: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 28 - 37 m (Ref. 9918).   Tropical

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 47.6, range 47 - ? cm
Max length : 106 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 58048); common length : 20.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 27550)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Indian Ocean and Western Central Pacific: India to Indonesia, including Singapore and Thailand.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Demersal inshore, in shallow depths to at least 37 m (Ref.58048). Also found offshore (Ref. 9918). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Smallest individual was 27 cm WD. Caught often by demersal trawl, trammel and gillnet fisheries, and occasionally using tangle nets. Utilized for its meat, but of limited value due to its typically small size (Ref.58048).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. John Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

  Vulnerable (VU) (A2d+3d+4d)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 27550)




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00430 - 0.04037), b=3.02 (2.77 - 3.27), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec assumed to be <10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.