Gymnura altavela  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Spiny butterfly ray
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Gymnura altavela   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Gymnura altavela (Spiny butterfly ray)
Gymnura altavela
Picture by Flescher, D.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Gymnuridae (Butterfly rays)
Etymology: Gymnura: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 5 - 100 m (Ref. 6808).   Subtropical; 44°N - 35°S

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 400 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 3709); common length : 200 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 3709); max. published weight: 60.0 kg (Ref. 4699)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Tail short armed with spine. Disk very broad. Very low dorsal and ventral finfolds on tail (Ref. 7251). Disk dark brown to grayish, lower surface of disc and of pelvic fins white, brownish, rosy or rusty cast. Tail white or rosy white below (Ref. 6902).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: southern New England, USA, Brazil (Ref. 7251) to Argentina (Ref. 58839). Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Ambriz, Angola (including the Mediterranean, Black Sea, and the Madeira and Canary islands).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Maximum length measured is 140 cm (Ref. 5377). Occurs over sand and mud. Feeds on fishes, crustaceans, mollusks and plankton. Ovoviviparous, gestation lasting about 6 months with 4 to 7 embryos produced per female (Ref. 6676).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Raies et autres batoides. p. 845-886. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identificationpour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Mèditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

  Vulnerable (VU) (A2bd+4bd)

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec 4-7).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.