Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 470 - 800 m (Ref. 57911). Deep-water; 20°S - 40°S, 60°W - 40°W (Ref. 57911)
Southwest Atlantic: Brazilian coast, from Rio de Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 53.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57911); common length : 19.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. )
Holotype taken from a depth of 800 m (Ref. 26282). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205). Feeds on fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 57911). Max. width (Teodoro Vaske Jr., pers. comm., 2002).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.9 - 10.1, mean 6.9 (based on 13 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.66 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .