Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Ophidiiformes
(Cusk eels) > Bythitidae
(Viviparous brotulas) > Bythitinae
Etymology: Grammonus: Greek, gramma = signal, mark + Greek, onos = hake; nagaredai:
provided a series of photographs taken in his aquarium. More on authors: Randall & Hughes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 6 - 9 m (Ref. 79569). Tropical
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Pacific: Hawaiian Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 82.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 79569); 106.0 cm SL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 64 - 66;
Vertebrae: 42. Predorsal scales extending to interorbital space; scales present on opercle and preopercle; three overlapping longitudinal rows of prominent sensory papillae on body; body depth at origin of dorsal fin 3.2–3.4 in SL; head length 3.15-3.2 in SL; mouth strongly oblique; edge of preopercle smooth except for a tiny spine at rounded corner; caudal fin joined only basally to dorsal and anal fins; normal life color dark
brown, the sensory papillae on head and body white.
From caves off O'ahu and Hawai'i (Ref. 79569).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E. and Hughes M.J., 2009. Grammonus nagaredai, a new viviparous marine fish (Ophidiiformes: Bythitidae) from the Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Science 63(1):137-146. (Ref. 79569)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .