Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Monotaxinae
Etymology: Gnathodentex: Greek, gnathos = jaw + latin, dens, dentis = teeth (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 3 - 30 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 35°N - 30°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295)
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Tuamoto Islands (excluding the Hawaiian Islands), north to Japan, south to Australia. Recently reported from Norfolk Island (Ref. 8880).
Inhabits subtidal reef flats, lagoons, and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). May be solitary or in groups (Ref. 90102). Sometimes forms aggregations of about a hundred or more individuals. Feeds at night on benthic invertebrates like crabs and gastropods, occasionally on small fish. Usually marketed fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00864 - 0.02531), b=3.03 (2.88 - 3.18), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.57 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .