Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos)
Etymology: Gnathanodon: Greek, gnathos = jaw + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 2 m (Ref. 58302). Tropical; 30°N - 30°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 32.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441); common length : 75.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9283); max. published weight: 15.0 kg (Ref. 30874)
soft rays: 15 - 17. Color of juveniles and young adults bright yellow to silvery; broad and narrow black bars alternating; fins yellow. Adults with few black blotches or spots on sides; bars, if present, very faint. Lips thick and fleshy. Breast completely scaled. Pectorals falcate ; anal fin with 2 detached spines
Indo-Pacific. Eastern Pacific: southwestern coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico and Gulf of California to Ecuador (Ref. 9283).
Occur in deep lagoon and seaward reefs where they feed by rooting for crustaceans and other invertebrates in the sand. Also feed on small fishes. Small juveniles live among the tentacles of jellyfish (Ref. 9710). Form schools. Noted for their behavior to closely swim around sharks and other large fish, but also following divers (Ref. 10361) to gain protection from likely predators (Ref. 9710). Marketed fresh and salted or dried (Ref. 9283). Juveniles are used in the aquarium trade.
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1995. Carangidae. Jureles, pámpanos, cojinúas, zapateros, cocineros, casabes, macarelas, chicharros, jorobados, medregales, pez pilota. p. 940-986. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01430 (-0.01509 - 0.04369), b=2.93 (2.92 - 2.95), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.60 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.14-0.53).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .