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Glyptocephalus cynoglossus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Witch flounder
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Image of Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Witch flounder)
Glyptocephalus cynoglossus
Picture by Dolgov, A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae (Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Glyptocephalus: Greek, glyptes = carver + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 18 - 1570 m (Ref. 5951), usually 45 - 366 m (Ref. 6263).   Temperate; 2°C - 6°C (Ref. 6263); 74°N - 35°N, 79°W - 26°E

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 30.4  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4705); max. published weight: 2.5 kg (Ref. 35388); max. reported age: 25 years (Ref. 6263)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 95-120; Anal soft rays: 85 - 102. Pectoral fin of eyed side shorter than head. Distal part of pectoral fin blackish (Ref. 232). Large mucus pores on the blind side of the head. Uniform coloration, rough scales. Body elongated with complete straight lateral line (Ref. 35388).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Northern Spain to northern Norway. Western Atlantic: Gulf of St. Lawrence and Grand Banks in Canada to North Carolina in USA (Ref. 7251).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits soft mud bottoms in fairly deep water (Ref. 9988). Benthic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on crustaceans, polychaetes, brittle stars (Ref. 9988) and fishes (Ref. 58426). Marketed fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Eggs and larvae are pelagic.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Amaoka, Kunio | Collaborators

Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(fisheries: production, species profile; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
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Ecology
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References
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Aquaculture profile
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Allele frequencies
Heritability
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Processing
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Ciguatera
Speed
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Otoliths
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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | RFE Identification | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00290 - 0.00755), b=3.08 (2.94 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.15-0.2; tmax=25).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.