Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
IN genus Rhinobatos in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. November 2013: Ref. 94485).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 119 m (Ref. 9909). Subtropical; 26°N - 18°S, 43°E - 156°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 280 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf to Thailand and Viet Nam. Possibly occurring in China, Indonesia (Sumatra, Borneo), Philippines, New Guinea, and Bougainville Islands.
Ranges from the intertidal to offshore continental shelves down to 119 m (Ref. 9909). A carnivorous fish that feeds on large shellfishes (Ref. 58784). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Biology little known (Ref. 9909). Utilized where it occurs but details lacking (Ref. 9909).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. John Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), based on all LWR estimates (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (87 of 100) .