Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes
(Ground sharks) > Triakidae
(Houndsharks) > Galeorhininae
Etymology: Galeorhinus: Greek, galeos = a shark + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 1100 m (Ref. 26346), usually 2 - 470 m (Ref. 36731). Subtropical; 70°N - 58°S, 111°E - 37°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 134.0, range 120 - 185 cm
Max length : 193 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); 195.0 cm TL (female); common length : 160 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9258); max. published weight: 44.7 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 55 years (Ref. 6871)
soft rays: 0. A large houndshark with a long, pointed snout, a large mouth, and small blade-like teeth; 2nd dorsal about as large as anal fin and terminal caudal lobe as long as rest of fin (Ref. 5578). Greyish above, white below; young with black markings on fins (Ref. 5578).
Widespread in temperate waters (Ref. 52183). Western Atlantic: southern Brazil to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: Iceland to South Africa, including the Mediterranean. Western Indian Ocean: South Africa. Western Pacific: Australia and New Zealand. Eastern Pacific: Hawaii; British Columbia, Canada to southern Baja California and the Gulf of California in Mexico; Peru and Chile.
Mainly demersal on continental and insular shelves, but also on the upper slopes, at depths from near shore to 550 m (Ref. 6871). Has been shown to be pelagic in the open ocean (frequently caught on floating tuna longlines over deep water, and many New Zealand-tagged specimens have been recaptured in Australia) (Ref. 26346). Occurs in small schools that are highly migratory in higher latitudes in their range (Ref. 244). There is pronounced partial segregation by size and sex in some areas (Ref. 244). Feeds on fishes (bottom as well as pelagic species, Ref. 26346), crustaceans, cephalopods, worms, and echinoderms (Ref. 244). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Its meat is excellent for human consumption, liver for squalene oil, fins for soup (Ref. 244); also utilized as fishmeal (Ref. 13563). Marketed fresh, dried-salted, and frozen (Ref. 9987). Adapts well in captivity if carefully captured and handled (Ref. 12951).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00283 (-0.06406 - 0.06972), b=3.08940 (3.04579 - 3.13301), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (rm=0.033; tmax=55; Fec=6-52).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (74 of 100) .