Family Carapidae - Pearlfishes
  Order
:
  Class
:
Actinopterygii
No. in FishBase
:
Genera : 8 | Species : 36 Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
  Environment
:
Fresh : No | Brackish : No | Marine : Yes
  Division
:
Marine
  Aquarium
:
none
  First Fossil Record
:
     
  Remark
:
Distribution: tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. Dorsal fin rays shorter than opposite anal rays. Anus of adults and origin of anal fin located behind head and usually under pectoral fin, under vertebrae 1 - 13. Translucent eel-like fishes without scales. Wide gill openings, reaching far forward. Vomerine, palatine and jaw teeth present. No opercular spines. Branchiostegal rays 6-7. No supramaxillary. Vertebrae about 85-145. Vexillum present in larvae. Eggs are pelagic, oval, and slightly over 1 mm in the longest dimension (Ref. 240). Pearlfishes are free-living (Echiodon), commensal (Carapus, Onuxodon), or parasitic (Encheliophis, = Jordanicus), living in association with shallow-water invertebrate hosts (holothurians, bivalves, starfishes), largely in coral-dominated communities. Family members occur in shelf and slope waters of 0-2,000 m depth and range from about 65°N to 60°S.
  Etymology
:
Greek kara ("head") and apous ("without foot", pelvic fin, which is thoracic in position, if present) (P.Adamicka, pers.comm. 08/09).
  Reproductive guild
:
nonguarders
  Typical activity level
:
  Main Ref
:
  Coordinator
:
  Deep Fin Classification
:
Osteichthyes | Actinopterygii | Actinopteri | Neopterygii | Teleostei | Osteoglossocephalai | Clupeocephala | Euteleosteomorpha | Neoteleostei | Eurypterygia | Ctenosquamata | Acanthomorphata | Euacanthomorphacea | Percomorphaceae | Ophidiimorpharia | Ophidiiformes | Ophidioidei | Carapidae

Show species images | Show valid names | Nominal species list | Identification keys | CAS specimen photos | References

 
Ref.
[ e.g. 9948]
Glossary
[ e.g. cephalopods]


Species/Synonymy list for the family Carapidae as currently in FishBase

Important recommendation:

The list below must not be used as an authority reference synonymy list like those found in scientific published revisions, which must be the source to be used and cited eventually when they exist.

Rather, it reflects the current content of FishBase, and the progress with respect to synchronization with the Catalog of Fishes. However, we think it can be useful for users to assess the quality of information in FishBase, to start new work on the family, or to cross-check with other lists.

But we appreciate to be cited in publications when this list has been of any working value. In particular, for published scientific, we suggest then to cite it in the Material and Method section as a useful tool to conduct the research, but again, not as a taxonomic or nomenclatural authority reference.

Unless it is explicitly precised, the list is not complete, please search all original names published for the family in the Catalog of Fishes (genera, species), including those with uncertain or unknown status, that are not included in FishBase when they are not attached to a valid species.

This list uses some data from Catalog of Fishes (not shown but used to sort names).

In the column CofF, the digit indicates the status of synchronization with CofF: 0: Not checked; 1: Same status;   2: Different status;   3: Other combination;   4: Synonym in CofF;   5: Species/Subspecies issue;   6: Synonym of another species in CofF;   7: Not in CofF;   8: Should not be in CofF. The CofF version currently used is the one published on 23-07-2014 (Ref. 97102).

The list ordered as follows:

Please send comments and corrections if you detect errors or missing names.

Show all | Show only accepted name | Show only accepted and original names
Scientifc name Status Senior/Junior synonym Combination CofF
Carapinae
Carapus acus (Brünnich, 1768)
acceptedseniornew
Gymnotus acus Brünnich, 1768
synonymseniororiginal2
Diaphasia acus (Brünnich, 1768)
synonymseniornew
Fierasfer acus (Brünnich, 1768)
synonymseniornew
synonymjuniororiginal2
Fierasfer fontanesii (Risso, 1810)
synonymjuniornew
Ophidium imberbe Cuvier, 1815
synonymjuniororiginal2
Carapus imberbis (Cuvier, 1815)
synonymjuniornew
Fierasfer imberbis (Cuvier, 1815)
synonymjuniornew
Ophidium fierasfer Risso, 1827
synonymjuniororiginal2
Fierasfer maculata Swainson, 1839
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Encheliophis tenuis Putnam, 1874
synonymjuniororiginal2
Carapus cuspis Arnold, 1956
synonymjuniororiginal2
Carapus birpex Arnold, 1956
synonymjuniororiginal2
Carapus variegatus (non Fowler & Steinitz, 1956)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Carapus bermudensis (Jones, 1874)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
Disparichthys herrei Schultz, 1938
synonymjuniororiginal2
Carapus chavesi Ancona López, 1956
synonymjuniororiginal2
Carapus recifensis Ancona López, 1956
synonymjuniororiginal2
Fierasfer dubius (non Putnam, 1874)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Carapus dubius (Putnam, 1874)
acceptedseniornew
Fierasfer dubius Putnam, 1874
synonymseniororiginal2
Encheliophis dubius (Putnam, 1874)
synonymseniornew
Fierasfer caninus Günther, 1862
ambiguousotheroriginal2
Fierasfer arenicola Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
synonymjuniororiginal2
Fierasfer microdon Gilbert, 1905
synonymjuniororiginal2
Leptofierasfer macrurus Meek & Hildebrand, 1928
synonymjuniororiginal2
Carapus sluiteri (Weber, 1905)
acceptedseniornew
Fierasfer sluiteri Weber, 1905
synonymseniororiginal2
Carapus mourlani (Petit, 1934)
acceptedseniornew
Fierasfer mourlani Petit, 1934
synonymseniororiginal2
Encheliophis mourlani (Petit, 1934)
synonymseniornew
Oxybeles lumbricoides Bleeker, 1854
ambiguousquestionableoriginal2
Carapus pindae Smith, 1955
synonymjuniororiginal2
Carapus mayottae Smith, 1955
synonymjuniororiginal2
Carapus variegatus Fowler & Steinitz, 1956
ambiguousotheroriginal2
Carapus homei (non Richardson, 1846)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Echiodon drummondii Thompson, 1837
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Echiodon drummondi Thompson, 1837
synonymseniororiginal
Echiodon dentatus (Cuvier, 1829)
acceptedseniornew
Ophidium dentatum Cuvier, 1829
synonymseniororiginal2
Carapus dentatus (Cuvier, 1829)
synonymseniornew
Fierasfer dentatus (Cuvier, 1829)
synonymseniornew
Echiodon rendahli (Whitley, 1941)
acceptedseniornew
Carapus rendahli Whitley, 1941
synonymseniororiginal2
Echiodon exsilium Rosenblatt, 1961
acceptedseniororiginal2
Echiodon dawsoni Williams & Shipp, 1982
acceptedseniororiginal2
Echiodon sp. A Not applicable
synonymotherother
Echiodon cryomargarites Markle, Williams & Olney, 1983
acceptedseniororiginal2
Echiodon anchipterus Williams, 1984
acceptedseniororiginal2
Echiodon coheni Williams, 1984
acceptedseniororiginal2
Echiodon neotes Markle & Olney, 1990
acceptedseniororiginal2
Echiodon pegasus Markle & Olney, 1990
acceptedseniororiginal2
Echiodon pukaki Markle & Olney, 1990
acceptedseniororiginal2
Echiodon atopus Anderson, 2005
acceptedseniororiginal2
Echiodon prionodon Parmentier, 2012
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
synonymseniororiginal
Encheliophis jordani Heller & Snodgrass, 1903
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniornew
Encheliophis homei (Richardson, 1846)
acceptedseniornew
Oxybeles homei Richardson, 1846
synonymseniororiginal2
Carapus homei (Richardson, 1846)
synonymseniornew
Fierasfer homei (Richardson, 1846)
synonymseniornew
! Echeliophis homei (Richardson, 1846)
synonymseniornew
Oxybelus brandesii Bleeker, 1851
synonymjuniororiginal2
! Fierasfer brandesu (Bleeker, 1851)
synonymjuniornew
! Oxybeles brandesii Bleeker, 1851
synonymjuniororiginal
Fierasfer neglectum Peters, 1855
synonymjuniororiginal2
Carapus neglectus (Peters, 1855)
synonymjuniornew
Fierasfer affinis Günther, 1862
synonymjuniororiginal2
Fierasfer acus (non Brünnich, 1768)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Fierasfer caninus (non Günther, 1862)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
synonymseniornew
synonymseniornew
synonymseniornew
synonymjuniororiginal2
Carapus parvipinnis (Kaup, 1856)
synonymjuniornew
synonymjuniornew
synonymjuniornew
Fierasfer kagoshimanus Steindachner & Döderlein, 1887
ambiguousquestionableoriginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Encheliophis gracilis (Bleeker, 1856)
acceptedseniornew
Oxybeles gracilis Bleeker, 1856
synonymseniororiginal2
Carapus gracilis (Bleeker, 1856)
synonymseniornew
Jordanicus gracilis (Bleeker, 1856)
synonymseniornew
! Enchelyophis gracilis (Bleeker, 1856)
synonymseniornew
Fierasfer umbratilis Jordan & Evermann, 1903
synonymjuniororiginal2
Fierasfer houlti Ogilby, 1922
synonymjuniororiginal2
Carapus houlti (Ogilby, 1922)
synonymjuniornew
acceptedseniornew
Carapus sagamianus Tanaka, 1908
synonymseniororiginal2
Encheliophis vermiops Markle & Olney, 1990
acceptedseniororiginal2
Encheliophis chardewalli Parmentier, 2004
acceptedseniororiginal2
Onuxodon parvibrachium (Fowler, 1927)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
! Onuxodon parvibranchium (Fowler, 1927)
synonymseniornew
Carapus reedi Smith, 1955
ambiguousotheroriginal2
Onuxodon margaritiferae (Rendahl, 1921)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
! Onuxodon margaritifer (Rendahl, 1921)
synonymseniornew
Onuxodon fowleri (Smith, 1955)
acceptedseniornew
Jordanicus fowleri Smith, 1955
synonymseniororiginal2
Carapus reedi Smith, 1955
ambiguousotheroriginal2
Jordanicus caninus (non Günther, 1862)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Carapus margaritiferae (non Rendahl, 1921)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Onuxodon margaritiferae (non Rendahl, 1921)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Pyramodontinae
Pyramodon ventralis Smith & Radcliffe, 1913
acceptedseniororiginal2
Pyramodon punctatus (Regan, 1914)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
Pyramodon ventralis (non Smith & Radcliffe, 1913)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Pyramodon lindas Markle & Olney, 1990
acceptedseniororiginal2
Pyramodon parini Markle & Olney, 1990
acceptedseniororiginal2
Pyramodon ventralis (non Smith & Radcliffe, 1913)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Snyderidia canina Gilbert, 1905
acceptedseniororiginal2
Snyderidia bothrops Robins & Nielsen, 1970
synonymjuniororiginal2
! Snyderidia bathrops Robins & Nielsen, 1970
synonymjuniororiginal
Eurypleuron owasianum (Matsubara, 1953)
acceptedseniornew
Carapus owasianus Matsubara, 1953
synonymseniororiginal2
Echiodon owasianus (Matsubara, 1953)
synonymseniornew
Eurypleuron cinereum (Smith, 1955)
acceptedseniornew
Carapus cinereus Smith, 1955
synonymseniororiginal2
Echiodon cinereus (Smith, 1955)
synonymseniornew
Eurypleuron cinereus (Smith, 1955)
synonymseniornew
Eurypleuron owasianum (non Matsubara, 1953)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Tetragondacninae
Tetragondacnus spilotus Anderson & Satria, 2007
acceptedseniororiginal2
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