Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Percidae
(Perches) > Etheostomatinae
Etymology: Etheostoma: Greek, etheo = to strain + Greek, stoma = mouth; Rafinesque said "various mouths", but Jordan and Evermann suggest the name might have been intended as "Heterostoma (Ref. 45335); sagitta: The specific epithet sagitta means arrow (Ref. 10294).
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Subtropical; 38°N - 36°N
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Distinguished by having the following characters: body long and slender; snout long and pointed; caudal fin base with 2 black spots partially fused into short bar; straw colored to olive above, 6-9 brown saddles; 7-9 large green Us alternate with orange bars (faint on female) along side; yellow below. Breeding males with bright orange bars on side, red-orange edge on 1st dorsal fin, bands of red -orange spots on 2nd dorsal and caudal fins, blue-green anal and pelvic fins. Lateral line usually incomplete, with 55-69 lateral scales, usually 63 or more; and 49-66 pored lateral-line scales, usually more than 52 (Ref. 86798).
North America: upper Cumberland River drainage in Kentucky and Tennessee, USA.
Inhabits rocky riffles and pools of headwaters, creeks and small rivers (Ref. 5723, 10294). Feeds on mayfly nymphs (heptageniids, baetids), blackfly and midge larvae, and lesser numbers of caddisfly, stonefly, and beetle larvae (Ref. 10294).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.67-0.79).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .