Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Percidae
(Perches) > Etheostomatinae
Etymology: Etheostoma: Greek, etheo = to strain + Greek, stoma = mouth; Rafinesque said "various mouths", but Jordan and Evermann suggest the name might have been intended as "Heterostoma (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Subtropical; 31°N - 29°N
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 4.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 2.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193)
Morphology | Morphometrics
North America: found only in San Marcos and Comal springs and their effluent rivers (Guadalupe River system) in southern central Texas, USA.
Occur in vegetated springs, pools and runs of effluent rivers (Ref. 5723). Feed primarily on cladocerans, copepods, amphipods, and aquatic insects (Ref. 54633). Spawn throughout the year (Ref. 75081) at 33-day interval (Ref. 31966). Eggs are found attached to the substrate unguarded (Ref. 7043).
Eggs are found attached to the substrate unguarded (Ref. 7043).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00457 - 0.02754), b=3.06 (2.85 - 3.27), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec=760).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .