Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 150 m (Ref. 9710). Subtropical; 36°N - 36°S, 23°E - 175°E (Ref. 5222)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102); max. published weight: 1.4 kg (Ref. 5222)
Indo-West Pacific: East Africa to the western Pacific, southward into temperate waters of South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Not known from the Red Sea or Persian Gulf.
Occurs on coral reefs, areas with rocky substrata, algal flats and seagrass beds. Feeds on fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 30573). A protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). Forms spawning aggregations (Ref. 55367). Solitary (Ref 90102).
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01234 (-0.08439 - 0.10906), b=3.03054 (2.96549 - 3.09559), based on LWR estimates for species & genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.54 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .