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Hyporthodus nigritus  (Holbrook, 1855)

Warsaw grouper
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Image of Hyporthodus nigritus (Warsaw grouper)
Hyporthodus nigritus
Picture by Bryan, D.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 55 - 525 m (Ref. 5222).   Tropical; 43°N - 34°S, 98°W - 35°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA to the Gulf of Mexico, Cuba, Trinidad, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo (Ref. 47377), Brazil. Rare in the West Indies (Cuba, Haiti, and Trinidad). Reports from the eastern Pacific are apparently misidentifications of Epinephelus exsul.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 230 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222); max. published weight: 198.1 kg (Ref. 4699)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-15; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 9. Distinguished by the following characteristics: dark reddish brown or brownish grey to almost black dorsally, dull reddish grey below; depth of body contained 2.4-2.6 times in SL; head length 2.1-2.5 times in SL; distinctly convex interorbital area; angular preopercle, rounded angle, with slightly enlarged serrae and with 1-2 small spines on lower edge just in front of angle; smooth interopercle and subopercle; subequal nostrils, posterior nostrils slightly larger; maxilla reaches well past eye; 4-5 rows of small teeth on midside part of lower jaw in adults and juveniles with 2-3 rows (Ref. 89707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A solitary species (Ref. 26340) usually found on rocky bottoms; juveniles are occasionally seen on jetties and shallow reefs (Ref. 89707). Adults feed on a variety of crabs, shrimps, lobsters, and fishes. Marketed fresh.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Craig, M.T. and P.A. Hastings, 2007. A molecular phylogeny of the groupers of the subfamily Epinephelinae (Serranidae) with revised classification of the epinephelini. Ichthyol. Res. 54:1-17. (Ref. 83414)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00670 - 0.02479), b=3.06 (2.90 - 3.22), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.61 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.05-0.14; tmax=24).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.