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Epinephelus coioides  (Hamilton, 1822)

Orange-spotted grouper
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Epinephelus coioides   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus coioides (Orange-spotted grouper)
Epinephelus coioides
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 100 m (Ref. 167).   Subtropical; 37°N - 34°S, 28°E - 180°E (Ref. 5222)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 43.5, range 25 - 30 cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 47613); max. published weight: 15.0 kg (Ref. 11228); max. reported age: 22 years (Ref. 3627)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-16; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Small individuals closely resemble E. tauvinaand E. malabaricus, but have orange spots and lack hexagonal spots on the fins (Ref. 37816); head and body tan dorsally, shading to whitish ventrally; numerous small brownish orange or reddish brown spots on head, body and median fins (Ref. 89707); further characterized by having overall tan color; four irregular H-shaped dark bars; back with 3-4 blackish saddles; head, body and fins with numerous small brownish orange or reddish brown spots; body scales ctenoid except for nape, back, thorax, abdomen and above anal-fin base with cycloid scales; greatest depth of body 2.9-3.7 in SL; rounded caudal fin; short pelvic fins, 1.9-2.7 in head length (Ref 90102).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea south to at least Durban, South Africa and eastward to Palau and Fiji, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819) and Australia. Recently reported from the Mediterranean coast of Israel (Ref. 5222). Frequently misidentified as Epinephelus tauvina or Epinephelus malabaricus (Ref. 27362).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabit turbid coastal reefs (Ref. 9710) and are often found in brackish water (Ref. 27362) over mud and rubble (Ref. 6390). Juveniles are common in shallow waters of estuaries over sand, mud and gravel and among mangroves (Ref. 6390). Feed on small fishes, shrimps, and crabs. Probably spawn during restricted periods and form aggregations when doing so (Ref. 27352). Eggs and early larvae are probably pelagic (Ref. 6390). Has been tested in several countries as a potential species for mariculture (Ref. 43448). Solitary (Ref 90102).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p.

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
FAO(Aquaculture: production, species profile; fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=-1.89000 (nan - nan), b=3.05 (2.92 - 3.18), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.17; tm=2-3; tmax=22).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (58 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.