Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Elopiformes
(Tarpons and tenpounders) > Elopidae
Etymology: Elops: Greek, ellops = a kind of serpent (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range ? - 50 m (Ref. 26999). Tropical; 21°N - 23°S, 20°W - 15°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5377); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683)
spines: 0. Lateral line scales ornamented with non-ramified small tubes. Gray back, silver glossy sides; fins tinted yellow.
Eastern Atlantic: coastal waters from Mauritania to Angola or Namibia (Ref. 81629). Sometimes entering freshwater, like in Cross River (Ref. 81629) and Kouilou-Niari (Ref. 81629). It is often confused with Elops senegalensis (Ref. 81629).
Live in shallow coastal waters with sandy-muddy substrates. Occasionally enters brackish waters and downstreams of rivers. Feed on fish and shrimps (Ref. 28587). Spawn at sea.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1990. Elopidae. p. 118-119. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4445)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5176 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00395 - 0.02534), b=3.02 (2.80 - 3.24), based on LWR estimates for this Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.75 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=2-3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .