Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 22°N - 19°N
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44091)
Generally brown to black in color; pelvic fins separate rather than fused into a disc; young fish <2.5 cm long are distinctively jet black on the upper body and lighter on the sides and belly (Ref. 44091).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions | Faunafri
Oceania: Hawaii. Reported from USA (Ref. 3881).
Found in both altered and unaltered streams, but being unable to climb waterfalls restricts its habitat to the lower reaches of streams and estuaries; can be observed darting into the mud and leaf litter, or sheltering among rocks and cobble, rarely showing in the open; highly predaceous on various invertebrates, e.g. slow-moving thiarid snails and asiatic clams, and fishes; traditionally caught with a baited hook attached to a short stick (fishing method called kiomo'omo); relished as a food item, particularly when wrapped with leaves and roasted; now prized as bait by near-shore papio fisherman (Ref. 44091).
Tinker, S.W., 1978. Fishes of Hawaii, a handbook of the marine fishes of Hawaii and the Central Pacific Ocean. Hawaiian Service Inc., Honolulu. 568 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01120 (0.00495 - 0.02535), b=3.07 (2.86 - 3.28), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (45 of 100) .