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Eleginus gracilis  (Tilesius, 1810)

Saffron cod
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Image of Eleginus gracilis (Saffron cod)
Eleginus gracilis
Picture by Orlov, A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes (Cods) > Gadidae (Cods and haddocks)
Etymology: Eleginus: Greek, eleginos, -ou = a fish of the Nile (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous; depth range 0 - 300 m (Ref. 50550).   Polar; 75°N - 30°N, 124°E - 123°W (Ref. 54430)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 30.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371); max. published weight: 1.3 kg (Ref. 56527); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 56527)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 44-59; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 39 - 47; Vertebrae: 57 - 64. Distinguished by the presence of 3 dorsal and 2 anal fins, a lower jaw that is shorter than the upper, a chin barbel that is no longer than half the eye diameter, and a space between the second and third dorsal fins that is equal to or longer than the eye diameter (Ref. 27547). Lateral line curved in front, ending under the second dorsal fin (Ref. 27547); head with no lateral line pores (Ref. 1371). Expanded parapophyses swollen and hollow, beginning on about the vertebral centrum 9 or 10, containing outpouchings of the swim bladder (Ref. 1371). Second pelvic ray produced; caudal truncate or slightly emarginate (Ref. 27547). Grayish brown above, upper part of sides paler, sometimes with a silvery-violet shading, often mottled with indistinct darker blotches; lower sides and belly yellowish to silver white; fins dusky, dorsal and caudal with white edges (Ref. 27547).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

North Pacific: Chemulpo in North Korea (Yellow Sea) in the southwest to Sitka, Alaska in the southeast. Beyond the Bering Strait from Cape Lisburne in Chukchi Sea and east to Dease Strait (south coast of Victoria Island). Precise delimitation of the range depends on additional taxonomic study.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in shallow coastal waters (Ref. 1371). Enters rivers and may go considerable distances upstream, but usually remaining within regions of tidal influence (Ref. 1371, 27547). Adults exhibit seasonal movements: inshore during winter for purposes of spawning and offshore during summer for feeding (Ref. 1371). Juveniles and adults are opportunistic epibenthic feeders; juveniles feed on fish and small benthic crustaceans (Ref. 1371). Taxonomic problems to be solved.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Spawns 5-7 times in its life, or even 9-10 times for those living 10-14 years. Fecundity varies with geographical region. It decreases from east to west in the European Arctic and from south to north in western Pacific waters. Throughout its distribution area, spawning occurs during January-February in coastal zones of bays and inlets on sand-gravel substrate and in strong tidal currents.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial
FAO(fisheries: production, species profile; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
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Introductions
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Ecology
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Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
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Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
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Aquaculture profile
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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00435 - 0.01153), b=3.03 (2.89 - 3.17), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2-3; Fec=4,900).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (53 of 100) .
high
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.