Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Naucratinae
Etymology: Elagatis: Greek, elakate, -es = distaff, cane (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 150 m (Ref. 9710), usually 2 - 10 m (Ref. 40849). Subtropical; 42°N - 41°S, 95°W - 156°E (Ref. 54429)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 180 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 46.2 kg (Ref. 40637)
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Ref. 57756). Eastern Atlantic: off Genoa, Italy in the Mediterranean (Ref. 4233) and from Côte d'Ivoire to Angola (Ref. 7097). Throughout the Indo-Pacific (Ref. 37816), but rare or absent in the Persian Gulf (Ref. 3287). Eastern Pacific: mouth of Gulf of California to Ecuador; including the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 9283).
Adults are found in oceanic and coastal waters, generally near the surface over reefs or sometimes far from the coast often around floating logs or other debris (Ref. 9283, 11230, 48635, 90102). May form large schools (Ref. 9283, 48635). They feed on invertebrates, mainly on larger crustaceans of the zooplankton, and small fishes (Ref. 9283, 26145). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233). Good food fish (Ref. 9626) and a valued game fish (Ref. 26938); marketed fresh and salted or dried (Ref. 9283); also frozen and used for sashimi (Ref. 9987).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1986. Carangidae. p. 638-661. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3197)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)
Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00710 - 0.02337), b=2.89 (2.73 - 3.05), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tmax>3; K=0.6 is doubtful).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .