Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Eleotridae
(Sleepers) > Eleotrinae
Etymology: Dormitator: Latin, dormire = to sleep (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 46888). Tropical, preferred 25°C (Ref. 2060); 16°N - 18°S, 19°W - 14°E
Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Angola (Ref. 57413). Also reported from the Cunene in Namibia (Ref. 33857).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57413)
(total): 7 - 8;
soft rays: 9 - 10. Diagnosis: 19-22 predorsal scales; 28-33 scales in longitudinal series (including 2 or 3 scales on caudal fin base), 10-12 in rearward transverse series; 1st dorsal fin: VI-VII; 2nd dorsal fin: I,8-9; anal fin: I,9-10; pectoral fins: 12-14; caudal fin rounded with 15 segmented rays, 13 of which are branched; sensory canals absent on head; about 10 gill rakers on upper limb, and 20 on lower limb of first gill arch (Ref. 57413).
Coloration: Preserved specimens: brownish dorsally on head and body; ventral surface of belly pale; black pigment on scales along lateral midline of flanks; about 2 longitudinal bands sometimes present just dorsal to midline of scales; dark brown or black spot just posterior and dorsal to operculum, and sometimes a smaller spot below this; vertical brown bar at base of caudal fin; dorsal and caudal fins covered with black spots forming 2-3 longitudinal bands on both dorsal fins, and several vertical, crescentric bands on caudal fin; anal fin light brown, pelvics light brown with central rays sometimes darker; pectorals transparent (Ref. 57413). Live specimens: pale olive-green on back and white on belly; red-brown spots on 1st dorsal, 2nd dorsal and anal fins, latter 2 also with light yellow spots near distal margin; caudal fin with red-brown spots near base, and yellow or orange spots posteriorly (Ref. 57413).
Inhabits brackish water estuaries, creeks, lagoons and mangrove areas; occasionally enters freshwater (Ref. 7391, 57413). Known to be tolerant of wide range of salinity. Used as bio-control agents, e.g., use in control of mosquito larva (Ref. 42628). Endemic to West African coastline from Senegal to the Cunene River in Namibia (Ref. 92840).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawns in caves or on top of plants. Sometimes several females spawn with one male.
Harrison, I.J., P.J. Miller and F. Pezold, 2003. Eleotridae. p. 670-690 In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douce et saumâtres de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, Tome 2. Coll. Faune et Flore tropicales 40. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique, Museum National d'Histoire Naturalle, Paris, France and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris, France. 815 p. (Ref. 57413)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00421 - 0.02490), b=3.07 (2.86 - 3.28), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.5 ±0.23 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100) .