Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Nototheniidae
Etymology: Dissostichus: Greek, disso = twice, one or other + Greek, stix, stichos =line, row (Ref. 45335); eleginoides: eleginoides deriving from the genus Eleginops for an assumed resemblance to that genus (Ref. 11892).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 50 - 3850 m (Ref. 11892), usually 70 - 1500 m (Ref. 2121). Temperate; 33°S - 66°S, 77°W - 180°E (Ref. 54228)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 38 - 60 cm
Max length : 215 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2121); common length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2121); max. published weight: 9.6 kg (Ref. 58336); max. reported age: 31 years (Ref. 87879)
Southeast Pacific and Southwest Atlantic: southern Chile round the coast to Patagonia (Argentina) and the Falkland Islands. Southwest Pacific: Macquarie Island. Southern Ocean: South Georgia. Also known from sub-Antarctic islands and seamounts of the Indian sector.
At 12-15 cm TL, semi-pelagic juveniles become demersal at 150-400 m depth (Ref. 55957). Adults migrate to deeper habitats at depths greater than 1,000 m (Ref. 55957). Utilized as food fish (Ref. 4931). The South Georgia Patagonian Toothfish Longline Fishery of this species has been certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (http://www.msc.org/) as well-managed and sustainable (http://www.msc.org/html/content_1062.htm).
May spawn for the first time from around 8-10 years of age (Ref. 71843).
Dewitt, H.H., P.C. Heemstra and O. Gon, 1990. Nototheniidae. p. 279-331. In O. Gon and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Fishes of the Southern Ocean. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. (Ref. 5179)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00603 (0.00355 - 0.01022), b=3.18 (3.03 - 3.33), based on LWR estimates for species & Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.68 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec=230,000; tmax>=21).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .