Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Decapterus: Greek, deka = ten + Greek, pteron = wing, fin (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range 0 - 400 m (Ref. 58302), usually 40 - 200 m (Ref. 3197). Subtropical; 54°N - 46°S, 180°W - 180°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
soft rays: 27 - 30. Body elongate, slender, and somewhat circular in cross section; posterior edge of upper jaw straight dorsally, moderately rounded and oblique ventrally; edge of shoulder girdle (cleithrum) with two small papillae, the lower one larger; dorsal and anal fins each followed by a separate finlet; black metallic blue green; belly is silvery white; dorsal edge of operculum with a small black mark (Ref. 55763). Bluish green above, silvery below; yellow-green caudal fin; small black opercular spot (Ref. 3197). No dark dots on lateral line; caudal fin reddish (Ref. 13442).
Circumglobal. Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada and Bermuda to approximately Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Ref. 57756). Appears to be absent from the Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 9626). Eastern Atlantic: St. Helena, Ascension, Cape Verde, and Gulf of Guinea (Ref. 7097); Azores and Madeira (Ref. 4233). Indian Ocean: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Seychelles, Mascarenes, South Africa, and Sri Lanka (Ref. 3287). Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California and Revillagigedo Island to Ecuador (Ref. 9283).
Adults prefer clear oceanic waters, frequently around islands (Ref. 5217). Sometimes they are found near the surface, but generally caught between 40 and 200 m depth (Ref. 9283). Pelagic (Ref. 58302). Usually seen as fast moving schools along the reef edges near deep water (Ref. 48635, 26235). They feed mainly on zooplankton (Ref. 9283). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233). Marketed fresh and salted or dried (Ref. 9283).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1995. Carangidae. Jureles, pámpanos, cojinúas, zapateros, cocineros, casabes, macarelas, chicharros, jorobados, medregales, pez pilota. p. 940-986. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9283)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 26235)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; bait: usually
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.00859 - 0.02217), b=2.99 (2.85 - 3.13), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.8).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .