Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos)
Etymology: Decapterus: Greek, deka = ten + Greek, pteron = wing, fin (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range 0 - 400 m (Ref. 58302), usually 40 - 200 m (Ref. 3197). Subtropical; 54°N - 46°S, 180°W - 180°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
soft rays: 27 - 30. Body elongate, slender, and somewhat circular in cross section; posterior edge of upper jaw straight dorsally, moderately rounded and oblique ventrally; edge of shoulder girdle (cleithrum) with two small papillae, the lower one larger; dorsal and anal fins each followed by a separate finlet; black metallic blue green; belly is silvery white; dorsal edge of operculum with a small black mark (Ref. 55763). Bluish green above, silvery below; yellow-green caudal fin; small black opercular spot (Ref. 3197). No dark dots on lateral line; caudal fin reddish (Ref. 13442).
Circumglobal. Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada and Bermuda to approximately Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Ref. 57756). Appears to be absent from the Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 9626). Eastern Atlantic: St. Helena, Ascension, Cape Verde, and Gulf of Guinea (Ref. 7097); Azores and Madeira (Ref. 4233). Indian Ocean: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Seychelles, Mascarenes, South Africa, and Sri Lanka (Ref. 3287). Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California and Revillagigedo Island to Ecuador (Ref. 9283).
Prefer clear oceanic waters, frequently around islands (Ref. 5217). Sometimes near the surface, but generally caught between 40 and 200 m depth (Ref. 9283). Pelagic (Ref. 58302). Usually seen as fast moving schools along the reef edges near deep water (Ref. 48635, 26235). Feed mainly on zooplankton (Ref. 9283). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233). Marketed fresh and salted or dried (Ref. 9283).
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1995. Carangidae. Jureles, pámpanos, cojinúas, zapateros, cocineros, casabes, macarelas, chicharros, jorobados, medregales, pez pilota. p. 940-986. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 26235)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; bait: usually
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01443 (-0.08927 - 0.11813), b=2.97548 (2.90605 - 3.04492), based on LWR estimates for species & genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.8).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .