Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 62.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 27732); max. published weight: 6.0 kg (Ref. 27732)
soft rays: 0. Distinguished from the other stingray species in the Mekong basin by the presence of a ventral and a dorsal skin folds on the tail and the bright orange color of the ventral surface of the disc. The middle disc is whitish with scattered large orange spots. The dorsal surface of the disc is brown (Ref. 27732). Disc longer than wide; tail longer than body (Ref. 12693). Lacking caudal fin; with long whip-like tail (Ref. 43281).
Asia: Chao Phraya and Mekong basins. Possibly in Borneo.
Obligate freshwater stingray that occurs over sandy substrate in large rivers. Feeds on bottom-dwelling invertebrates (Ref. 12693). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Marketed fresh (Ref. 32457).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Last, P.R. and L.J.V. Compagno, 1999. Dasyatididae. Stingrays. p. 1479-1505. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9840)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00492 - 0.02938), b=3.03 (2.81 - 3.25), based on LWR estimates for this Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Assuming Fec<10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (76 of 100) .