Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Dasyatidae
Etymology: Dasyatis: Greek, dasys = rough, dense (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 3 - 270 m (Ref. 57911), usually 15 - 50 m (Ref. 4438). Subtropical; 45°N - 35°S, 90°W - 36°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 66 - 100 cm
Max length : 220 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 4438); common length : 125 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999); max. published weight: 300.0 kg (Ref. 57911)
soft rays: 0. Disc sub-quadrangular with strongly sinuous former edges, blunt snout (Ref. 39859). Large size and spacing of mid-dorsal bucklers, conspicuous tubercles on the outer parts of disc (Ref. 6902). Tail with numerous rows of small spines. Ventral finfold long, but quite low, not easily seen, dorsal finfold absent (Ref. 7251). Olive brown above, white or nearly below. Lower surface white and without dark edgings (Ref. 6902).
Eastern Atlantic: southern Bay of Biscay to Angola, including the Mediterranean Sea, Madeira, and Canary Islands. Western Atlantic: Georges Bank to the eastern Gulf of Mexico; southern Brazil to Argentina (Ref. 58839).
Found over sandy and muddy bottoms. Feeds on bottom-living invertebrates and fishes. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 6901). Wings marketed fresh, smoked, dried-salted; used for fishmeal and oil. Harmful to shellfish banks; dangerous to bathers and fishers due to its poisonous spine. May attain well over 100 cm TL. Warm season visitor to coastal waters (Ref. 6902).
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Gestation about 4 months with 2 to 4 young produced in autumn and early winter (Ref. 6901). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Raies et autres batoides. p. 845-886. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identificationpour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Mèditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3261)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=2-6).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .