Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Scorpaeniformes
(Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Cyclopteridae
Etymology: Cyclopterus: Greek, kyklos = round + Greek, pteron = fin (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 868 m (Ref. 58496), usually 50 - 150 m (Ref. 4701). Polar; 80°N - 32°N, 95°W - 49°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 61.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 58426); 42.9 cm SL (female); max. published weight: 9.5 kg (Ref. 4701); max. published weight: 9.5 kg; max. reported age: 13 years (Ref. 54207)
(total): 5 - 9;
soft rays: 9 - 10;
Vertebrae: 28 - 29. First dorsal fin present but covered by thick layer of skin forming a characteristic high crest with embedded spines. Bony tubercles present, arranged in 3 widely separated rows of large flattened tubercles on each side of body. Gill openings large, extend- extending below level of upper pectoral fin ray. Pyloric present 36-79. Ventral sucking disc formed by the modified pelvic fin (Ref. 232).
Western Atlantic: Nunavut, Hudson Bay to James Bay and Labrador in Canada to New Jersey in USA; rarely to Chesapeake Bay in USA and Bermuda. Eastern Atlantic: Barents Sea, Iceland and Greenland to Spain (Ref. 4701).
Basically solitary rather than a schooling fish. Exhibits a homing instinct (Ref. 9737). Inhabits rocky bottoms but may occur among floating seaweed. Migrates considerable distances in an annual cycle between deeper waters in winter and shallower waters in summer (Ref. 26141). Maximum depth reported at 868 m (Ref. 58426). Epibenthic-pelagic (Ref. 58426). During the spawning season the male becomes reddish in color on the underside, whereas the female is blue-green. Feeds on ctenophores, medusas, small crustaceans, polychaetes, jelly fish and small fishes. Valued for their eggs, which make an inexpensive caviar (Ref. 9988). Eaten in Nordic countries, marketed fresh or smoked. Male flesh is most demanded and roe is sold fresh (Ref. 35388).
Stein, D.L., 1986. Cyclopteridae. p. 1269-1274. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. III. (Ref. 4701)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; bait: usually
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02344 (0.00888 - 0.06186), b=3.02 (2.79 - 3.25), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.12; tm=3-5; tmax=13; Fec=100,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (63 of 100) .