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Coregonus sardinella  Valenciennes, 1848

Sardine cisco
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Coregonus sardinella   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Coregonus sardinella (Sardine cisco)
Coregonus sardinella
Picture by Runfola, D.M.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Coregoninae
Etymology: Coregonus: Greek, kore = pupils of the eye + Greek, gonia = angle (Ref. 45335);  sardinella: sardinella meaning small sardine (Ref. 1998).   More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; anadromous (Ref. 51243).   Polar; 78°N - 42°N

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 47.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1998); max. published weight: 555.00 g (Ref. 593); max. reported age: 26 years (Ref. 1998)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 12-14; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 10 - 13; Vertebrae: 58 - 64. Body elongate, somewhat compressed laterally, greatest body depth at front of dorsal fin. Head about 19 - 24 % of total length; eyes large; snout length usually less than eye diameter; mouth moderate, terminal, lower jaw always protruding, maxillary at a distinct angle, extending posteriorly to below anterior half of the eye; a small cluster of teeth present on the tongue. Overall coloration silvery, usually brown to dark green on the back, becoming silvery on sides and below. The small non-anadromous form that remains in fresh water is without spotting on the back and only the pelvic fins have black pigment on the tips., the remaining fins are unpigmented. The larger, anadromous form has dark spots on the head, back, dorsal, and adipose fins, and sometimes, on the pectoral fins; all fins have usually dark pigment on the tips.

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

North America: Murchison River, Canada to Bristol Bay, Alaska; ascends Yukon River to British Columbia, and Mackenzie River to Fort Simpson (Ref. 5723). Asia: Bering Sea, Chukot land and Kolyma River to Kara River on the northern end of the Urals (Ref. 593). Lakes and lower course of large rivers of Arctic Ocean basin from Pechora drainage to eastern Siberia (Ref. 59043). Belongs to Coregonus artedi complex. Occasionally hybridizes with Coregonus nelsoni (Ref. 27547).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults occur in coastal waters, estuaries, large lakes and rivers (Ref. 5723). Lake-dwelling populations appear to be non-migratory, while those found in streams or brackish water move considerable distances to reach or leave spawning sites (Ref. 27547). Semi-anadromous populations forage in estuaries, lower courses of rivers, backwaters and lakes (Ref. 59043). Nerito-pelagic (Ref. 58426). Feed on planktonic crustaceans and insects (Ref. 1998); also plant material (Ref. 27547) and fishes (Ref. 58426). Do not usually feed during its spawning run (Ref. 28219, 28860, 28861). Migratory forms are observed to live longer than fresh water forms (Ref. 1998). Spawn in deep pools on sand and gravel (Ref. 59043). Flesh is said to be tasty (Ref. 1998).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Spawning occurs at night, peaking between 8 pm and midnight. A female spawns almost vertically upward, with her ventral side upstream. She is joined by as many as five males who swim vertically and close to her. As the spawners approach the surface, eggs and milt are released. The fish break the surface, fall over backward, and swim back to the bottom of the pool (Ref. 27547).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00457 (0.00364 - 0.00575), b=3.19 (3.14 - 3.24), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.40; tm=2-4; tmax=11; Fec=2,500).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .
very high
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.