Coregonus lavaretus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

European whitefish
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Coregonus lavaretus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Coregonus lavaretus (European whitefish)
Coregonus lavaretus
Picture by Østergaard, T.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Coregoninae
Etymology: Coregonus: Greek, kore = pupils of the eye + Greek, gonia = angle (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 20 - ?; anadromous (Ref. 51243).   Temperate; 4°C - 16°C (Ref. 2059); 73°N - 40°N

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 27.1, range 40 - ? cm
Max length : 73.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 10.0 kg (Ref. 35388)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 3 - 5; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9-12; Anal spines: 3-5; Anal soft rays: 10 - 13. Mouth small with protruding upper jaw. Silvery body (Ref. 35388). Caudal fin with 19 soft rays (Ref. 40476).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Europe: Native to Lake Bourget (France) and Geneva (Switzerland, France). Population of Lake Aiguebelette (France) apparently introduced, but a 'lavaret' had already been recorded from there in the 17th century (Ref. 59043). Other authors assume it to be a superspecies occurring in Great Britain and Alpine areas of Central Europe. Has been stocked into many other places in Europe outside its native range. There are many parallel and wrong scientific names for this species in use because of the problems in classifying the genus Coregonus (Ref. 7495). Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna). Asia: introduced to Iran (Ref. 39702).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Gregarious lacustrine forms (Ref. 2163) and anadromous estuarine forms, rarely in full saltwater. Feeds on planktonic crustaceans, or larger benthic crustaceans in brackish water. Movement in water column as a function of zooplankton repartition (Ref. 2163). Spawns in gravel, near shore, in shallow water, in December (Ref. 59043). Likely to benefit from environmental regulations in France passed on 8/12/88 (Ref. 2163).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Wheeler, A., 1992. A list of the common and scientific names of fishes of the British Isles. J. Fish Biol. 41(1):1-37. (Ref. 5204)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(Aquaculture: production; fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00501 (0.00403 - 0.00624), b=3.17 (3.11 - 3.23), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3-0.7; tmax=8; Fecundity=3,800 - 169,800).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.