Coregonus autumnalis  (Pallas, 1776)

Arctic cisco
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Coregonus autumnalis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Coregonus autumnalis (Arctic cisco)
Coregonus autumnalis
Picture by Harrod, C.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Coregoninae
Etymology: Coregonus: Greek, kore = pupils of the eye + Greek, gonia = angle (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; anadromous (Ref. 51243).   Polar; 84°N - 49°N, 8°W - 95°W

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 28 - 34 cm
Max length : 65.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043); common length : 47.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 59043)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10-12; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 12 - 14; Vertebrae: 64 - 67. Distinguished by the pale or colorless pelvic fins, a terminal mouth and the presence of 41 to 48 gill rakers on the 1st gill arch (Ref. 27547). Dorsal fairly high and slightly falcate; pelvic with axillary process (Ref. 27547). Brown to dark greenish above fading to silvery on sides and belly; fins pale (Ref. 27547).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions | Faunafri

Europe: All drainages (except Ob and Baikal) of Arctic Ocean in Eurasia from Mezen eastward; America from Cape Barrow to Coronation Bay. Introduced in many localities of former USSR, but not established (Ref. 59043).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in brackish waters (20-22 ppt) of coastal lagoons and mouths of rivers and bays (Ref. 4779). Mostly in larger lowland rivers (Ref. 59043). Nerito-pelagic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on small crustaceans, insects, small fishes (Ref. 28219, 28857), worms and clams (Ref. 58426). At sea, feeds on larger crustaceans and small fish (Ref. 59043). No feeding occurs during the upstream migration (Ref. 4779). Lives 10 -12 years, rarely up to 20 (Ref. 59043). Enters rivers in shoals to spawn (Ref. 4779). Spends 6-8 years at sea before maturing and returning to rivers in June - July, to spawn in September - October of same year. A second run in autumn; those fishes remain a year in rivers before spawning. Moves far upstream, sometimes our to 1500 km. Spawns in shallow tributaries with some current in well oxygenated water over gravel bottom. Individual females do not spawn every year; spawns only 2-3 times during entire life. After spawning adults return directly to sea. Embryonic development lasts up to 7 months. Alevins migrate downstream in May - June (Ref. 59043). Collected by fyke nets (Ref. 4526). An important commercial species, but catches and abundance markedly reduced in last years (Ref. 59043).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Wheeler, A., 1992. A list of the common and scientific names of fishes of the British Isles. J. Fish Biol. 41(1):1-37.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00417 (0.00276 - 0.00630), b=3.19 (3.07 - 3.31), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=6; Fec=2,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.