Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Clupeinae
Etymology: Clupea: Latin, clupea = sardine, derived from Clupeus = shield; doubtless a reference to the scales covering the body of the fish + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Norman.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 70 m (Ref. 54915). Subtropical; 32°S - 36°S, 73°W - 70°W (Ref. 54915)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 10 - 11 cm
Max length : 28.4 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27363)
Southeast Pacific: Coquimbo, Valparaiso and south to Talcahuano, Chile; perhaps reaches further south to Mocha Island, but more southerly records may refer to Sprattus fuegensis. Subspecies have been noted (Ref. 6698): Strangomera bentincki bentincki (Talcahuano southward) and Strangomera bentincki cuga (Valparaiso to Talcahuano).
Occurs in schools at or near the surface in coastal waters. Feeds on plankton, especially diatoms (filter-feeding). Breeds mainly from June to November, from a length of about 10 cm. Eggs and larvae are planktonic (Ref. 52017). Mainly used for fishmeal.
Apparently releases planktonic eggs (similar to the demersal eggs of northern hemisphere Clupea).
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00631 (0.00359 - 0.01109), b=3.08 (2.92 - 3.24), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.30 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.6).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .