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Cichla orinocensis  Humboldt, 1821

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Cichla orinocensis
Picture by Lucanus, O.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Cichlidae (Cichlids) > Cichlinae
Etymology: Cichla: Greek, kichle = wrasse (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 5.5 - 6.5.   Tropical; 27°C - 29°C (Ref. 13614)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 26 - 30 cm
Max length : 61.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 36377); max. published weight: 6.2 kg (Ref. 72380)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Diagnosis: Differs from its congeners by typical presence of three large dark ocellated blotches along side, but occasionally blotches 2 and 3 irregularly developed or not ocellated. Lateral band abbreviated in juveniles. Differs from other species of Cichla with abbreviated juvenile lateral band by absence (vs. presence) of well defined vertical bars in adults; from ocellaris also by lateral line nearly always discontinuous vs. nearly always continuous, by absence (vs. presence) of bars 1a and 2a and absence (vs. presence) of abdominal blotches; from kelberi, monoculus, and pleiozona also by absence (vs. presence) of abdominal blotches and occipital bar, and presence (vs. absence) of postorbital markings; from nigromaculata also by absence (vs. presence) of bars 1a and 2a, and absence (vs. presence) of small black blotches on dorsum (Ref. 57716).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

South America: Orinoco River basin, in tributaries of the Orinoco River in Colombia and Venezuela; Amazon River basin, in the Negro River basin, Brazil.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits rivers (Ref. 12251). Is usually captured in shallow near-shore areas of lagoons and slow moving reaches of the river channel. Feeds mainly on small characiform fish (Ref. 26329, 27531).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Kullander, Sven O. | Collaborators

Kullander, S.O. and E.J.G. Ferreira, 2006. A review of the South American cichlid genus Cichla, with descriptions of nine new species. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 17(4):289-398. (Ref. 57716)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00518 - 0.02319), b=3.06 (2.86 - 3.26), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.8 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.08).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.