Cichla monoculus  Agassiz, 1831

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Cichla monoculus
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Cichlidae (Cichlids) > Cichlinae
Etymology: Cichla: Greek, kichle = wrasse (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.0 - ?.   Tropical; 25°C - 28°C (Ref. 13614)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 20 - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 50805); max. published weight: 9.0 kg (Ref. 35237)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Diagnosis: This species is similar to C. kelberi and C. pleiozona in having three dark vertical bars on side, presence of a pronounced occipital bar in large specimens, absence of black or ocellated markings laterally on head, and presence of irregular dark blotches on anterior abdominal side. Differs from C. pleiozona by having less scales in a lateral row (68-87 vs. 84-93 in C. pleiozona) and typical absence of dark vertical bar anteriorly on caudal peduncle, and from C. kelberi by absence of light spots on anal and pelvic fins and lower caudal fin (Ref. 57716).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

South America: Rio Solimões-Amazonas along the main channel and lower courses of tributaries; Peru, Colombia and Brazil; including Araguari and lower Oyapock rivers north of the Amazon. Probably much more widespread in the lowland Amazon basin.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Specimens collected were from flood prone areas, but in the Amazon the biotopes are more varied. This fish forays along the shore where small fishes may be concentrated. Juveniles feed on shrimps, while adults are almost exclusively piscivore. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Males are sexually mature after one year while females mature after two years. During reproduction which is not markedly seasonal, large males develop a frontal hump and become territorial (Ref. 35237). Maximum length 80 cm TL (Ref. 35237).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Oviparous (Ref. 205). May spawn 3-4 times a year in batches of 50 to 100 eggs, each spawning lasting 2-3 hours (Ref. 50805).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Kullander, Sven O. | Collaborators

Kullander, S.O. and E.J.G. Ferreira, 2006. A review of the South American cichlid genus Cichla, with descriptions of nine new species. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 17(4):289-398. (Ref. 57716)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.66 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec=150-400).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.