Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 85 m (Ref. 43278). Tropical; 34°N - 26°S, 78°E - 155°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 121 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 58048)
soft rays: 0. Genus: Nostrils subterminal on snout; pre-oral snout long, mouth closer to eyes than snout tip; eyes and supraorbital ridges hardly elevated; no black hood on head or large spot or spots on sides of body above pectoral fins (Ref. 43278). Caudal fin with a pronounced subterminal notch but without a ventral lobe (Ref. 13575).
Species: Young with dark transverse bands and usually a scattering of a few dark spots, bars not prominently edged with black (Ref. 13575, 43278). Adults light-brown, usually without a color pattern (Ref. 13575). Dorsal fins larger than pelvic fins, with projecting free rear tips (Ref. 13575). Body without lateral dermal ridge (Ref. 4832,43278, 13575).
Indo-West Pacific: India, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Viet Nam, China, Taiwan, Japan, Philippines, and northern Australia.
A common inshore bottom shark found on coral reefs, often in tide pools (Ref. 247). Probably feeds on bottom invertebrates and small fish (Ref. 6871). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Can survive up to 12 hours out of water (Ref. 247). Gills sometimes infested by larval isopods (Praniza-larva of isopod Gnathia) (Ref. 247). Utilized as food (Ref. 247); for its meat and fins. Caught frequently by demersal gillnet, longline and trawl fisheries operating in insular and continental shelf waters (Ref.58048).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00402 (-0.20851 - 0.21654), b=3.10019 (2.98233 - 3.21805), based on LWR estimates for this family-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.64 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (53 of 100) .