Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 30 m (Ref. 9710). Subtropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
Northwest Pacific: around Ryukyu, Bonin, and Izu islands and the main islands of southern Japan.
Inhabit clear and outer waters; usually more than 10 meters deep. Adults form schools of more than 10 individuals and migrate over a wide area. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205). Occasionally kept in captivity by Japanese aquarists but is rarely exported.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205).
Allen, G.R., 1985. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Vol. 2. 3rd edit. in English. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 4858)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02239 (0.01112 - 0.04506), b=3.01 (2.84 - 3.18), based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .