Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Cephalopholis: Greek, kephale = head + Greek, pholis = scale (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 60 m (Ref. 5222), usually 3 - 15 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 34°N - 30°S, 33°E - 131°W (Ref. 5222)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 17 - ? cm
Max length : 28.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222)
soft rays: 8 - 9. Distinguished by the following characteristics: fin with a pair of diagonal white bands; body scales ctenoid; greatest depth of body 2.7-3.1 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins 1.8-2.2 in head length (Ref 90102); head length 2.4-2.7 in SL; convex interorbital area; rounded preopercle, finely serrate, fleshy lower edge; subopercle and interopercle usually smooth; maxilla reaching well past eye; pectoral fins distinctly longer than pelvic fins; caudal fin rounded; snout and maxilla with minute cycloid scales (Ref. 089707).
Indo-Pacific: Kenya to northern South Africa and eastward to French Polynesia and the Pitcairn Islands. Unknown from the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, and the coast of India.
Inhabits clear, shallow waters of outer reef areas. Also found in lagoons, back-reef areas, and on the reef-top. Prefers healthy coral reef in shallow area therefore is greatly affected by reef degredation (Ref. 089707). Feeds on small fishes (68%) and crustaceans. Solitary (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: potential
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00735 - 0.01966), b=3.05 (2.91 - 3.19), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.69 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .