Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Cephalopholis: Greek, kephale = head + Greek, pholis = scale (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 200 m (Ref. 3589). Tropical; 33°N - 13°S, 27°W - 15°E (Ref. 5222)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 18.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27000); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999)
Eastern Atlantic: Western Sahara to Angola, including Cape Verde and the Sao Tome and Principe islands. Also recroded from the Mediterranean.
Found on sandy and rocky bottoms. Protogynous hermaphrodites (Ref. 32181).
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01002 (-0.09164 - 0.11168), b=3.09 (3.02 - 3.15), based on LWR estimates for species & genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.8 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .