Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Cephalopholis: Greek, kephale = head + Greek, pholis = scale (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 200 m (Ref. 3589). Tropical; 33°N - 13°S, 27°W - 15°E (Ref. 5222)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 18.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27000); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999)
soft rays: 9 - 10. Distinguished by the following characteristics: body depth less than head length, 2.8-3.2 in SL; head length 2.7-3.0 in SL; interorbital area convex; rounded preopercle, finely serrate, with shallow notch, fleshy lower edge; subopercle and interopercle with few small serrae covered by skin; maxilla reaching vertical at rear edge of eye or beyond; pectoral fins longer than pelvic fins, pectoral fin length contained 1.5-1.7 in HL; pelvic fins reaching or nearly reaching anus; caudal fin rounded; lateral-body scales ctenoid, without auxiliary scales (Ref. 089707).
Eastern Atlantic: Western Sahara to Angola, including Cape Verde and the Sao Tome and Principe islands. Also recorded from the Mediterranean.
Found on sandy and rocky bottoms (Ref. 32181). Diandric protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 089707).
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01070 (0.00707 - 0.01619), b=3.08 (2.96 - 3.20), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.8 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .