Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes
(Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae
Etymology: Carcharhinus: Greek, karcharos = sharpen + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated, usually 9 - ? m (Ref. 55176). Subtropical; 40°N - 37°S, 100°W - 33°W (Ref. 55176)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 115.0, range 103 - 137 cm
Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 244); max. published weight: 18.9 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 6 years (Ref. 56138)
Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to southern Brazil and Uruguay (Ref. 58839), including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean.
Found on continental and insular shelves, mainly over sandy, shell, and coral bottoms. Feeds on small fishes, including pinfish (Sparidae) and porcupine fish. Preyed on by larger sharks. Viviparous (with a yolk-sac placenta), with 3 to 6 young per litter. Performs a 'hunch' display, with back arched, caudal lowered and head raised, as a possible threat display when confronted by divers. Utilized dried salted for human consumption.
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.12; tm=3; tmax=6; Fec=4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .