Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Caranx: French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Quoy, Gaimard.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; amphidromous; depth range 0 - 146 m (Ref. 57178). Tropical; 26°C - 29°C, preferred 26°C (Ref. 107945); 32°N - 36°S, 25°E - 77°W
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 42.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9987); common length : 60.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3287); max. published weight: 18.0 kg (Ref. 9987)
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Hawaii, north to southern Japan and the Ogasawara Islands, south to Australia and New Caledonia. Eastern Pacific: southwestern coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico and the Gulf of California to Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 9283).
Inhabit coastal and oceanic waters associated with reefs (Ref. 9283, 58302). Pelagic at 1-96 m (Ref. 58302). Often seen in large daytime schools; solitary at night when feeding (Ref. 90102). Adults are found in coral reefs and are mostly active at night or during twilight periods. During the day they are usually seen milling in stationary aggregations (Ref. 44894). Occasionally enter rivers (Ref. 9283). Juveniles may be encountered in estuaries (Ref. 9283, 44894), occasionally entering rivers and penetrating well inland (Ref. 2847, 44894). Form slow-moving schools in the passes or outside the reef during the day, dispersing at night feed (Ref. 4795). Feed mainly on fishes, squids and crustaceans (Ref. 9283, Ref. 90102). Marketed fresh, dried or salted (Ref. 9283) and frozen (Ref. 9987). Consumed broiled and baked (Ref. 9987).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.24).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .