Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos)
Etymology: Caranx: French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 188 m (Ref. 58302). Tropical; 26°C - 29°C; 35°N - 37°S, 19°E - 129°W
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 60.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 170 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5213); max. published weight: 80.0 kg (Ref. 4795)
soft rays: 15 - 17. Head and body dusky golden dorsally, silver ventrally; fins usually pigmented grey to black. Opercular spot absent. 26-38 strong scutes. Breast without scales ventrally; a small patch of prepelvic scales. Pectoral fins falcate; anal fin with 2 detached spines.
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and east coast of Africa to the Hawaiian and Marquesan islands, north to southern Japan (Ref. 559) and the Ogasawara Islands, south to northern Australia. Hybrid with Caranx melampygus found in Hawaii (Ref. 58422).
Pelagic over sand and rock (Ref. 58302). Adults occur singly and inhabit clear lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Juveniles found in estuaries. Feed on crustaceans (like crabs and spiny lobsters) and fishes at night (Ref. 4887). Large individuals may be ciguatoxic. The largest trevally, reaching 1.7 m in length and a weight of over 60 kg (Ref. 48635). Spawn on shallow seaward reefs and offshore banks (Ref. 37816). Sold mostly fresh and dried salted.
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 9710)
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01872 (-0.01815 - 0.05559), b=2.94 (2.92 - 2.95), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.08-0.11; tm=3.5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (74 of 100) .